Essay on labeling theory
the application of labeling theory to homosexuality. In short, group selection (or as some prefer, multilevel selection) may be a completely coherent model that may suggest selection pressures that have acted to shape human nature. "Scratch an altruist biologist Michael Ghislin eloquently wrote in 1974, "and watch a hypocrite bleed." Pinker frames the issue in terms of sacrificing personal interests on behalf of the group. It is a welcome relief that Steve Pinker has applied his usual acuity to the ever-vexatious debate on group selection. This "all things considered" calculation predicts which allele will evolve in the total gene pool, which is why Williams called it a "bookkeeping method". Human social groups are psychologically very salient entities (8)as Pinker acknowledges. So far I have said nothing about individual organisms (or groups). Particularly absent is anything on kin selection, the foundation of "selfish gene" theory in William Hamilton and Richard Dawkins. 59 Richard Troiden, "Becoming Homosexual: A model of Gay Identity Acquisition 1979. There, the bedeviling force of the stigma will introduce him to more excessive modes of deviance such as promiscuity, prostitution, alcoholism, and drugs. None of this should be taken as an endorsement.O.
This is wrong, and very few informed evolutionists would make the mistake today. 2 Matthew Boyd 2011. My prediction is that new research in microbial ecology and evolution will change everything in how we think about genes and evolution. 81 Goffman (1963),. . It has led commentators to equate human goodness with prowess in tribal competitionas if the only reason we feel compassion for a lame puppy is that it helped our ancestors massacre the villagers across the river.
(2010) 6 Nowak, Tarnita and Wilson (2010) 7 Maynard Smith,., Szathmary,. Also, moral issues grab our minds and we engage them forcefully as if our reputations were on the line. In the real world, success in group-against-group competition is not primarily determined by differences in within-group empathy and kindness but by differences in ideology, technology, military strategy, and organization coerced by brutal discipline, none of which need be costly to the individuals who implement them. 1988, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale,. 19 Once the illusion of quick victory was shattered, the soldiers were ordered into battle by callous commanders and goaded on by "file closers" (soldiers ordered to shoot any comrade who failed to advance) and by the threat of execution for desertion, carried out. Perhaps it can help to resolve this controversy. Nature, 471 (7339 E4-E5. Such mental reasoning, which has been called "shared intentionality is implicated in many uniquely human cognitive characteristics, including cumulative culture and language. For Pinker, this is the only way that the term "group selection" makes sense, but it is not the concept of group selection that began with Darwin, was refined by population geneticists, rejected in the 1960's, and revived today. Examples include bits of code in genetic algorithms, the analogs of genes in artificial-life simulations, and, if the physicist Lee Smolin is correct, the laws and constants of entire universes. One could image a version of Darwinian natural selection in which there are no vehicles, only replicators, but not the other way around.